Saima Mirza, Brishti Sasmal, Meghna Goswami and Priyanka Patel*
Plastic has caused adverse effects in ecosystem and that particularly concerns our health as well as the environment. Plastic decomposition takes thousands of years in the landfills. Also, large amounts of plastics are not recycled ending up in landfills and water bodies. Some portions are burned up in incinerators resulting in release of many harmful gases in to the environment. Plastics entrapped in different ways causes distress. Microbes play an important role in degradation and decomposition of wastes. Some of the microbes have ability to degrade environmental plastic. Some of these microbial species utilize carbon as its sole source of energy and produce certain enzymes which accounts for plastic degradation. Microorganisms which have been reported to be able to degrade different kinds of polymers are Pseudomonas sp., Proteobacteria sp., Bacillus sp., Stenotrophomonas sp., Staphylococcus sp., Rhodococcus sp., Arthrobacter sp. Ideonella sp., Comamonas sp., Streptomyces sp. and others. This review focuses on bacterial degradation of different forms of synthetic plastics such as Polyurethanes (PUR), Polythene (PE), Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), Polyamides, Styrene.
Keywords: Bacterial plastic degradation, Biodegradation of plastic, Environment and Enzyme.